Threshold Voltage
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The threshold voltage, commonly abbreviated as Vth, of a MOSFET is usually defined as the gate voltage where an Inversion layer (semiconductors)|inversion layer forms at the interface between the insulating layer (oxide) and the substrate (body) of the transistor. The formation of the inversion layer allows the flow of electrons through the gate-source junction. The creation of this layer is described next. In an n-MOSFET the substrate of the transistor is composed of p-type silicon (see doping (semiconductor)), which has positively charged mobile holes as carriers. When a positive voltage is applied on the gate, an electric field causes the holes to be repelled from the interface, creating a depletion region containing immobile negatively charged acceptor ions. A further increase in the gate voltage eventually causes electrons to appear at the interface, in what is called an inversion layer, or channel. Historically the gate voltage at which the electron density at the interface is...
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