Trellis Coded Modulation
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In telecommunication, trellis modulation (also known as trellis coded modulation, or simply TCM) is a modulation scheme which allows highly efficient transmission of information over band-limited channels such as telephone lines. Trellis modulation was invented by Gottfried Ungerboeck working for IBM in the 1970s, and first described in a conference paper in 1976; but it went largely unnoticed until he published a new detailed exposition in 1982 which achieved sudden widespread recognition. In the late 1980s, modems operating over plain old telephone service (POTS) typically achieved 9.6 kbit/s by employing 4 bits per symbol QAM modulation at 2,400 baud (symbols/second). This bit rate ceiling existed despite the best efforts of many researchers, and some engineers predicted that without a major upgrade of the public phone infrastructure, the maximum achievable rate for a POTS modem might be 14 kbit/s for two-way communication (3,429 baud × 4 bits/symbol, using QAM). ...
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