Negative Bias Temperature Instability
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Negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) is a key reliability issue in MOSFETs. It is of immediate concern in p-channel MOSFET|MOS devices, since they almost always operate with negative gate-to-source voltage; however, the very same mechanism also affects nMOS transistors when biased in the accumulation regime, i.e. with a negative bias applied to the gate too. NBTI manifests as an increase in the threshold voltage and consequent decrease in drain current and transconductance. The degradation exhibits logarithmic dependence on time. In the sub-micrometer devices nitrogen is incorporated into the silicon gate oxide to reduce the gate leakage current density and prevent the boron penetration. However, incorporating nitrogen enhances NBTI. For new technologies (32 nm and shorter nominal channel lengths), high-K metal gate stacks are used as an alternative to improve the gate current density for a given equivalent oxide thickness (EOT). Even with the introduction of new...
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