Post Translational Modification
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Posttranslational modification (PTM) is the chemistry|chemical modification of a protein after its translation (biology)|translation. It is one of the later steps in protein biosynthesis, and thus gene expression, for many proteins. A protein (also called a polypeptide) is a chain of amino acids. During protein synthesis, 20 different amino acids can be incorporated to become a protein. After translation, the posttranslational modification of amino acids extends the range of functions of the protein by attaching it to other biochemical functional groups (such as acetate, phosphate, various lipids and carbohydrates), changing the chemical nature of an amino acid (e.g. citrullination), or making structural changes (e.g. formation of disulfide bridges). Also, enzymes may remove amino acids from the N-terminal end|amino end of the protein, or cut the peptide chain in the middle. For instance, the peptide hormone insulin is cut twice after disulfide bonds are formed, and a propeptide is...
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