Formal Specification
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In computer science, a formal specification is a mathematics|mathematical description of software or computer hardware|hardware that may be used to develop an implementation. It describes what the system should do, not (necessarily) how the system should do it. Given such a specification, it is possible to use formal verification techniques to demonstrate that a candidate system design is correct with respect to the specification. This has the advantage that incorrect candidate system designs can be revised before a major investment has been made in actually implementing the design. An alternative approach is to use provably correct Program refinement|refinement steps to transform a specification into a design, and ultimately into an actual implementation, that is correct by construction.A design (or implementation) cannot ever be declared “correct” in isolation, but only “correct with respect to a given specification”. Whether the formal specification correctly describes the problem t...
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