Regulation of Gene Expression
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Regulation of gene expression includes a wide range of mechanisms that are used by cells to increase or decrease the production of specific gene product|gene products (protein or RNA), and is informally termed gene regulation. Sophisticated programs of gene expression are widely used in biology, for example to trigger developmental pathways, respond to environmental stimuli, or adapt to new food sources. Virtually any step of gene expression can be modulated, from Transcriptional regulation|transcriptional initiation, to RNA processing, and to the post-translational modification of a protein. Gene regulation is essential for viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes as it increases the versatility and adaptability of an organism by allowing the cell to express protein when needed. Although as early as 1951 Barbara McClintock showed interaction between two genetic loci, Activator (Ac) and Dissociator (Ds), in the color formation of maize seeds, the first discovery of a gene regulation system...
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