Modeling Coordination and Control in Cross-Organizational Workflows
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Current e-service technology paradigms require the analysis and conceptual modeling of cooperative inter-organizational workflows. Cooperation among different organizations is based on contractual agreements that coordinate production activities among cooperating companies and establish mechanisms to control the fulfillment of production goals. Existing conceptual models of workflows do not provide constructs and related methodological guidelines to support the high-level conceptual modeling of coordination and control activities. This paper presents a model that helps specifying patterns of control and coordination among different cooperating actors and associating corresponding contractual rules. Patterns are organized along a continuum between hierarchical and market control and coordination paradigms. The model is explained based on an example showing the fundamental differences between hierarchical and market coordination and control. It is also shown how operating flows change as coordination and control shift from hierarchical to market patterns, due to varying contractual rules for cooperation in executing operating activities.